Want to know how to write better sentences? Let`s take a look at some excellent examples of declarative phrases from English literature. Seeing how renowned authors use declarative phrases can help you understand the subtleties. Many textbooks and review instructions for writing research articles state that the title is « the most important part of a scientific paper, » and Lang suggested that « it is the most read, and often the only, part that is read . » Despite their importance, there is no consensus on the most appropriate style for titles. Article titles can be classified as descriptive or declarative. Descriptive (or indicative) titles describe the subject and design of the study. Declarative (or informative) titles indicate the results of the study . Confusingly, while many journals prohibit the use of declarative titles, some journals encourage or even require them [3–5]. At least in some disciplines, the use of declarative titles has increased since the mid-1980s . Hypothesis testing is at the heart of the positivist or quantitative research approach, as described in Chapter 2. The following long paragraph by Busha and Harter (1980) contains a definition of the term « hypothesis » and an explanation of the role of hypotheses in research and their derivation: There is no doubt that many contributions to the literature on technological knowledge call for silence; Moreover, most do so by pointing out that it has generally been neglected because it focuses only on codified knowledge, and is essential for a complete representation of knowledge. Thus, the existing literature seems to be based on the idea that implicit knowledge has something distinctive and perhaps also something unmistakably tacit about technological knowledge. This makes the implicit call to knowledge potentially interesting for the epistemic-emancipatory project.
But to see how and to what extent the implicit appeal to knowledge could improve our understanding of the nature of technological knowledge and emancipate it from scientific knowledge, two questions must be answered. First, what is the relationship between tacit knowledge and technological knowledge? Second, is the silence of technological knowledge more important or more complete than that of other types of knowledge? Because we could not find similar published studies, we could not predict the magnitude of the difference or the extent of variability within the groups we were likely to find. It was therefore not possible to calculate benefits. We used a bilateral t-test to analyse the difference between EVA values between A1 and A2 in the declarative and descriptive title groups. We used analysis of covariance to account for group differences in abstract A1 ratings . For each abstract, participants accepted the statement « Anticox is an effective treatment for pain in Green`s syndrome » using 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS) ranging from « disagree » to « strongly agree ». Our hypothesis was that the difference in perception of effectiveness between A1 and A2 would be greater if A2 had a declarative title. EVA scores were measured by an examiner (EW) who was unaware of the group assignment (this was achieved by hiding the top of the form so that the title could not be seen while the EVA score was being measured). The predefined main result was the difference between EVA values between A1 and A2 in the declarative and descriptive title groups. No secondary outcomes were measured. The 4GL category includes a wide range of application development tools, including declarative programming languages, very high-level programming languages, and visual development environments. Query languages and report writers are also sometimes considered 4GLs because these tools use declarative languages.
Despite these limitations, we believe our results are interesting. In particular, we found no evidence to support the claim by many publishers that declarative titles unduly influence readers and unduly reinforce the study`s conclusions. Gjersvik P, Nylenna M. Declarative titles in original research articles in dermatological journals 1974-2014. 2014;30:124–5. Our small exploratory study does not support or challenge journal bans on declarative titles, but can reassure publishers that such titles may not be as harmful as has sometimes been claimed. Larger studies with a wider range of participants, in different settings and with different study designs are needed to better understand this problem. Unfortunately, given the cost of medical research and the importance of communicating its findings effectively and impartially, there is remarkably little research on the impact of reporting formats and styles on readers` understanding and perception [14, 15]. We encourage writers, publishers and funders to remedy this situation and lay the groundwork for evidence-based research reports. Authors and publishers of journals benefit from a large number of readers who watch the work. These views are saved as citation measures. High citation indicators promote the prestige of the author and the journal in which the article is published.
With the introduction of the Altmetric Top 100 in 2013, there is a new way to track readership. Altmetric tracks the 100 most shared newspaper articles – everyone wants to make the list. The researchers are now examining how the title of a research article can affect readership. Long TA. How to write, publish and present in the health sciences. A guide for clinicians and laboratory researchers. Philadelphia: President of the CPA; 2010. p. 143. How do declarative sentences work? Below we explain all the rules and expert advice as well as many examples of declarative sentences.
Those who encourage the use of declarative headings suggest that they can make articles more appealing (an aspect we have not attempted to measure in this study) or more effective in communicating their message. Richard Smith (as editor of The BMJ) wrote, « Journalists who know a thing or two about how to get people to read what they write strongly believe in the use of declarative titles and the inclusion of active verbs. » Freddie Starr ate my hamster » is one of the great titles of our time. « Freddie Starr and My Hamster: A Personal Story » would be long forgotten . The ACP Journal Club suggested: « By disclosing the conclusion of each article in its title, we hope to help busy clinical readers become even more effective in their efforts to follow the literature . Opponents of declaratory titles have argued that they can be misleading and depart from hypothesis-based science, in which a hypothesis cannot be proven, but can only be supported or rejected. They argue that all results should be open to interpretation, given the inherent limitations and weaknesses of each study, and that, therefore, declarative titles often represent an exaggeration of the conclusions. In addition, such headlines can minimize the significance of outliers, i.e. subjects that do not match the study result .
The use of declarative titles in the literature contradicts the training of young scientists, who learn to decide for themselves whether a conclusion is justified on the basis of the results presented. In the worst case, such headlines could anchor falsehood as permanent truth in the literature , with possible implications for public welfare. EW provides publishing training and advice to publishers, publishers and researchers. 4GLs meet the goals of achieving higher productivity and freeing developers from implementation details through high-level abstractions. 4GLs typically use two types of high-level abstractions: declarative declarations and high-level constructs, sometimes called very high-level languages, and predefined components that the developer can easily customize and incorporate into new applications.