The principle of legality is the legal ideal that requires all laws to be clear, verifiable and not retroactive. It obliges decision-makers to resolve disputes through the application of previously declared legal provisions and not to retroactively change the legal situation by discretionary deviations from the applicable law.  It is closely linked to legal formalism and the rule of law and is found in the writings of Feuerbach, Dicey and Montesquieu. Equally disturbing is John`s accelerated privatization of private law. This trend becomes more evident to us when we agree to « click » to access online resources that would otherwise be closed to us. In the process of « unification », we renounce rights too numerous and too extensive to even want to know them; and the rule of law suffers, as Margaret Radin and Judith Resnik have argued. John focuses on one aspect: the transfer to take or leave consumer disputes to private arbitral tribunals. This type of privatization is particularly insidious when, as is typical, it separates dispute resolution from judicial review. Here, Diceyan`s well-known objections to administrative law – as bureaucratic legislation not checked by the courts – are reinforced by the fact that corporations that insist on isolating legal power from legal oversight do so only to maximize profits. The parties may benefit from the legal applicability of the results of private arbitration, but the public good of legality does not exist.1 There is no common law, no judgment as to subsequent consequences, and no pure work on the legal doctrines that should guide the interpretation and application of contractual clauses. International lawyers usually start with the legal. What is a legal issue versus a political one? How should international law adapt to the unexpected? These are the ways in which international lawyers generally argue.
Instead, this book begins with the non-legal. In a series of case studies, Fleur Johns examines what international lawyers portray outside or against the law – as extra-legal, illegal, pre-legal or otherwise non-legal – and how this shapes political possibilities. Non-legality is not just the rest of regulatory action. It is a central structuring instrument of the current world order. Constructions of lawlessness are at the heart of the debate in areas ranging from torture to foreign investment, and from climate change to natural disaster relief. Understanding non-legality sheds light on what international lawyers do today and what they don`t do. The detection and possible redesign of the non-legal in international legal work is therefore both important and urgent. In criminal law, the principle of legality guarantees the rule of law in all criminal proceedings. Ewik and Silbey define « legality » more broadly than meanings, sources of authority, and cultural practices that are somehow legal, although they are not necessarily authorized or recognized by official law.
The concept of legality offers the opportunity to reflect on « how, where and with what effect, law is produced in and through everyday social interactions. How do our roles and status, relationships, obligations, privileges and responsibilities, identities and behaviours shape the law?  `. A fascinating and ambitious critique of how international lawyers and practitioners are forced to understand the effect of non-legality on the creation of new normative concepts of international law. is likely to provoke fierce debate within the international and comparative academic community. In a document on the normative phenomena of morality, ethics and legality, legality is defined taking into account the role of the state as follows: The system of laws and regulations for good and bad behavior that are enforceable by the state (federal, state or local authority in the United States) through the exercise of its police powers and judicial process. with the threat and application of sanctions, including its monopoly on the right to use physical force.  Beyond the controversy over women`s right to choose abortion, in Dobbs v. Jackson, there is a deep but hidden disagreement about the source of the court`s legitimacy.
By focusing on a discrepancy between Justice Alito`s exact quotation of Alexander Hamilton`s famous dictum from Federalist No. 78 in his majority opinion and Breyer J.A.`s divergent paraphrase of the same dictum in Dobbs` oral arguments, I debunk this disagreement. For many decades, conservative and progressive justices have built up a body of jurisprudence that positions the misspelling of this saying as a cornerstone. The paraphrased version replaced Hamilton`s statement that, without the sword and the wallet, all the court has is a « judgment » with the saying that all the court has is « public trust. » This seemingly minor change captures the reasons for the continuing weakening of the traditional gap between law as the domain of reason and politics as the domain of will. The traditional division has meant that after the political process of passing legislation in the area of legality, reason (or « judgment » in Hamilton`s term) prevailed. Public support for a particular legal argument or « public confidence » in the Court of Justice should have no force in the area of legality. But beginning in the 1930s, the ability to measure public support for the Supreme Court in public opinion polls allowed the public will to permeate the field of legality in unprecedented ways. Legitimacy « understood in terms of public support » has become the criterion for evaluating the Court and its judgments. As a result, constitutional correctness has become increasingly dependent on popular acceptance and no longer on a matter of well-founded legal argumentation. Alito`s approach builds on Hamilton`s original understanding of the court`s source of legitimacy. While Alito may not have a majority on the court on this issue, his decision could serve as a starting point to reverse the dangerous trend of dissolving the gap between law and politics. To restore this division, the Court will have to revisit other precedents, beginning with Heller.
The principle of legality may be influenced differently by different constitutional models. In the United States, laws cannot violate provisions of the U.S. Constitution that prohibit retroactive laws. In the UK, under the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, legislators can (theoretically) pass retroactive laws as they see fit, although Article 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which has the force of law in the UK, prohibits any conviction for a crime that was not illegal at the time it was committed. Article 7 has already had an effect in a number of cases before the British courts. The rule of law provides for the availability of rules, laws and legal mechanisms to implement them. The principle of legality verifies the availability and quality of laws. Legality checks whether a certain behavior is legal or not. The concept of legitimacy of the law refers to the fairness or acceptance of fairness in the implementation process. Legality can be defined as an act, agreement or contract that is consistent with the law or state in which it is lawful or illegal in a particular jurisdiction. The legal principle that a defendant cannot be prosecuted for an act which is not declared a criminal offence in that jurisdiction actually refers to the principle of legality, which is part of the overall concept of legality.  There is some debate as to whether this is really a true exception or not. Some will say that this is an exception or, perhaps more seriously, a violation of the principle of legality. While others would argue that crimes such as genocide violate natural law and, as such, are always illegal and always have been. Therefore, it is always legitimate to punish them. The exception and justification of natural law can be seen as an attempt to justify the Nuremberg trials and the Adolf Eichmann trial, both of which have been criticized for retroactive criminal sanctions. Nullum crimen sine lege is sometimes called the principle of legality. It is also interchangeable with « nullum poena sine lege », which translates to « no punishment without law ». The quality of legality and compliance with the law can refer to legality, i.e. compatibility with the law, or they can be discussed in principle of legality or discussed as legal legitimacy.
Today`s Young Lawyers. have a « special responsibility for the quality of justice » that goes beyond what the original drafters of the Bar Association`s Code of Professional Conduct might have expected. Because they face a world that is more hostile to legality and is even more tied to legalization than anything we`ve seen before.